There are several tasks that are done repeatedly when interacting with the API. These include generating the auth_hash, building a query string from a dictionary object and generating the full URL endpoint.

Building a hash

Building an auth_hash requires the API key secret. This is generated when you create your API Key.

import hmac
import urllib
import hashlib
import base64

def generate_hash(key_secret, query_string=None):
    key_secret: The secret key associated with the API key you'll be passing in the `api_key` parameter. It is a tuple
        with the following format: (KEY_ID, KEY_SECRET)
    query_string: A URL query string

        query_string format: "param1=value1&param2=value2&api_key=API_KEY"

        Note that this does not have the leading "?" and that the api_key is included
    hash =[1], query_string, hashlib.sha256).digest()
    hash = base64.b64encode(hash)
    hash = urllib.quote_plus(hash)
    return hash

Generating Query string

requests can take dictionary objects when using .post(), .put() or .patch() methods. It may be easier to utilize the same code structure when using .get() as well. This function will convert a dictionary object into a query string, which can be passed to generate_hash()

def generate_query_string(query_dict):
    query_dict: A dictionary of key:value pairs

                'param1': 'value1',
                'param2': 100,
                'param3': 'value2'

        Result: "param3=value2&param2=100&param1=value1"
    if isinstance(query_dict, basestring):
        return query_dict
        q = ''.join("{k}={v}&".format(k=k, v=v) for k, v in query_dict.items() if v)
        return q[:-1]   # Strip trailing "&"

Generate Full API Endpoint

This function will build the full URL we will call. It will utilize a combination of generate_hash and generate_query_string to properly build the URL.

def generate_full_endpoint(api_url, endpoint, key_secret=None, query_string=None):
    """Build the full API end point with query string and auth hash

    api_url: The base URL for the API
    endpoint: The URL that will be queried
    key_secret: The key associated with the user making this call. It is a tuple
        with the following format: (KEY_ID, KEY_SECRET)
    query_string: The query string that will be used to make this call

    Returns the full URL of the API, with auth_hash, query string and api_key
    for this call
    if query_string:
        query_string = "{query_string}&".format(query_string=query_string)
        query_string = ""
    if key_secret:
        query_string += "api_key={api_key}".format(api_key=key_secret[0])
        query_string += "&auth_hash={hash}".format(
            hash=generate_hash(key_secret, query_string))
    query_string = "?{query_string}".format(query_string=query_string)

    url = "{api}{endpoint}{query_string}".format(
    return url

With this function (and the previous two) we can handle any type of URL we need when interacting with the PacketFabric API.